WHAT IS Ketamax (Ketamine hydrochloride)
Ketamax (Ketamine hydrochloride) Injection is an anesthetic used in diagnostic and surgical procedures. It should be administered under the supervision of trained healthcare professionals. Close monitoring of heart and lung function is necessary while receiving this medicine. This medicine is not recommended for use in patients with a known allergy to Ketamax 50 mg Injection.
It may also be used as an intravenous analgesic with opiates to manage otherwise intractable pain, particularly if this pain is neuropathic.
It has the added benefit of counteracting spinal sensitization or wind-up phenomena experienced with chronic pain. At these doses, the psychotropic side effects are less apparent and well managed with benzodiazepines.
Ketamine is an analgesic that is most effective when used alongside a low-dose opioid; because, while it does have analgesic effects by itself, the doses required for adequate pain relief when it is used as the sole analgesic agent are considerably higher and far more likely to produce disorienting side effects.
A review article in 2013 concluded, “despite limitations in the breadth and depth of data available, there is evidence that ketamine may be a viable option for treatment-refractory cancer pain”.
Low-dose ketamine is sometimes used in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).
A 2013 systematic review found only low-quality evidence to support the use of ketamine for CRPS.
See also: Esketamine Depression, and List of investigational antidepressants
Some evidence has found ketamine to be a rapid-acting antidepressant in depression, for instance in major depressive disorder, treatment-resistant depression, and bipolar depression.
It also may be effective in rapidly alleviating suicidal ideation, although based on lower quality evidence. The rapid-onset antidepressant effects of ketamine were first shown in small studies in 2000 and 2006.
They have since been demonstrated and characterized in subsequent studies.
A single low, sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine given via intravenous infusion may produce antidepressant effects within four hours in people with depression.
When administered by trained medical professionals, Ketamax (Ketamine hydrochloride) is generally safe for those people who are critically ill. Even in these cases, there are known side effects that include one or more of the following:
Cardiovascular: abnormal heart rhythms, slow heart rate or fast heart rate, high blood pressure or low blood pressure.
Central nervous system: Ketamine is traditionally avoided in people with or at risk of intracranial hypertension (ICP) due to concerns about ketamine causing increased intracranial pressure. It does not increase ICP more than opioids.
Dermatologic: Transient reddening of the skin, transient measles-like rash
Gastrointestinal: reduced appetite, nausea, increased salivation, vomiting
Local: Pain, eruptions or rashes at the injection site
Neuromuscular and skeletal: Increased skeletal muscle tone (tonic-clonic movements)
Ocular: Double vision, increased intraocular pressure, involuntary eye movements, tunnel vision
Respiratory: Airway obstruction, cessation of breathing, increased bronchial secretions, reduced effort to breathe, spasm of the vocal cords (larynx)
Other: Anaphylaxis, dependence, emergence reaction
At anesthetic doses, 10–20% of people experience adverse reactions that occur during emergence from anesthesia, reactions that can manifest as seriously as hallucinations and delirium.
These reactions may be less common in some people subpopulations, and when administered intramuscularly, and can occur up to 24 hours postoperatively; the chance of this occurring can be reduced by minimizing stimulation to the person during recovery and pretreating with a benzodiazepine, alongside a lower dose of ketamine.
People who experience severe reactions may require treatment with a small dose of a short- or ultrashort-acting barbiturate.
Major and minor side effects:
-Difficulty in breathingRARE
-Redness of skinRARE
-Nausea or VomitingRARE
-Pain at the injection siteRARE